魏长庚船长专栏/2017004/船级社(二)
日期:2017-06-19 阅读:2049

3.3.2 Frequency of classification surveys

3.3.2船级社检验周期

The frequency of classification surveys varies from Society to Society but, by way of example, Lloyd's Register's Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships prescribe the following intervals:

· Hull and machinery special survey: five years.

· Dry-docking survey: three years (two to be held in each five-year period).

· Hull and machinery annual survey: one year.

· Tail-shaft survey: five years.

· Internal boiler survey: three years (two to be held in each five-year period).

船级社检验的周期因船级社不同而各有变化,但,可以通过举例的方式了解,例如,《劳氏船级社的规则和制度》规定检验周期如下:

(1). 船体和机械特检周期:五年。

(2). 干坞内检验周期:三年(每五年期间进行两次)。

(3). 船体和机械的年度检验:一年。

(4). 尾轴检验:五年。

(5). 锅炉内部检验:三年(每五年期间进行两次)。

The rules of the major Classification Societies require each entered ship to undergo a complete survey of her machinery every five years. However, such a survey could be both commercially inconvenient (usually it would involve the ship being taken out of service for several days) and expensive. It is therefore common for shipowners to request that their ships be placed on a continuous survey cycle for machinery. Where such a request is accepted by the ship's Classification Society, the result will be that instead of one complete survey at the end of every five years, the Society will agree to a programme of rolling surveys. The rolling survey programme is designed to ensure that within each successive 12-month period from the inception of the programme, approximately one fifth of the ship's machinery will be surveyed by the Society's surveyors.

各大船级社的规则要求每个入级的船舶每5年经历一个完整的机械检验。然而,这种检验可能商业上既不方便(通常,这将涉及到该船舶退出营运服务数天)又非常昂贵。因此,船东普遍要求他们的船舶能够开展机械连续循环检验。一旦船级社接受这种请求,其结果将是取代每5年结束时的一个完整检验,船级社也将同意循环检验的计划。循环检验计划的设计是确保:计划开始实施后,在接下来的每一个12个月周期内,船级社验船师将完成大约五分之一的船上机械的检验。

By way of illustration, regulation 3.5.19 in Chapter 2 of Part 1 of Lloyd's Register's rules states:

通过举例的方式说明,在劳氏船级社规则中第2章第3.5.19条中规定如下:

“When, at the request of an Owner it has been agreed by the Committee that the Complete Survey of the machinery may be carried out on the Continuous Survey basis, the various items of machinery are to be opened for survey in rotation, so far as practicable, to ensure that the interval between consecutive examinations of each item will not exceed five years. In general, approximately one-fifth of the machinery is to be examined each year.”

‘当,该委员会应船东的请求并同意船舶全部机械检验可以按照连续循环检验的形式进行,尽可能按照实际可行的顺序拆开检验各种不同的机械项目,以确保每一个项目的连续检验间隔不会超过五年。在一般情况下,每年大约检查五分之一的船舶机械。’

3.3.3 Suspension or withdrawal of class

3.3.3暂停或撤销船级

If a shipowner fails to comply with repair work requirements or other requirements issued by its Classification Society, or if a shipowner otherwise contravenes class rules, the Classification Society could decide either to suspend or to withdraw (meaning cancel) the ship's classification with immediate effect or after a specified period of time. In general, Classification Society rules do not provide for automatic suspension or withdrawal of class. It is necessary to differentiate between a contravention of class rules or requirements that results in the classification status of a ship becoming irregular and the suspension or withdrawal of a ship's classification. In general an offending ship will keep its formal (or “paper”) class until the classification has been suspended or withdrawn according to an express decision of the Classification Society in question.

如果船东未能遵守维修工作的要求或其船级社颁发的其他要求规定,或者如果船东以其他方式违反了船级规则,船级社可能会决定暂停或撤销(意为取消)船舶的船级,即时生效或在规定的时间之后生效。在一般情况下,船级社的规则规定船舶不会自动暂停或撤销船级。这必要区分违反船级规则或船级状况的规定,这些规定将导致船级状况‘不正常’或者船级暂停/撤销。 一般来说,违规的船舶还会保持其正式(或‘理论上’)船级,除非该船级社根据明示的裁定暂停或撤销其船级。

Any adverse change in the classification status of a ship could have serious consequences for the ship owner. Such a change could:

· mean that the ship is non-compliant with the requirements of its flag state (see section 3.4 below);

· result in the automatic termination of the ship's insurance cover;

· entitle the ship's financiers to demand immediate repayment of a loan secured

· against the ship and to enforce their security over the ship; and

· render the ship ineligible for most chartering and other trading activities.

船舶的船级状况发生任何严重的变化都有可能给船东带来严重后果。这些变化可能是:

(1). 表示船舶不符合其船旗国的规定要求(参看下文第3.4节);

(2). 导致自动终止船舶保险的保障;

(3). 船舶融资人有权要求立即偿还担保贷款;

(4). 执行船舶抵押和执行船舶其它担保;

(5). 导致船舶不适合大多数的租船合同及其他商业活动。

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