《装卸时间与滞期费》第二章——装卸时间条款-连载(十)

2018-04-18884
  《装卸时间与滞期费》第6版

  Laytime Clauses 装卸时间条款

  2.75 If the laytime allowed is measured in conventional days, as is normal these days, then it may still be permissible to make up the laytime statement on a calendar basis, with parts of a day at the beginning and end of laytime. Indeed Viscount Radcliffe appears to suggest that this is the correct method. However, it is sometimes done strictly on a conventional day basis, with the laytime used debited against each weather working day, the first of which would thus start at whatever hour of the day laytime started to run. On this basis, a particular weather working day could start at 08 00 on Saturday and run until 08 00 on Monday, the intervening Sunday not counting.

  2.75如果允许使用的装卸时间是用传统约定日来计量的,且在这些正常日子里,那么仍然允许以日历日为基础来编制装卸时间统计表,并包括装卸时间起止时不足一天的那部分时间。的确,在Raddiffe子爵看来似乎认为这是正确的方法。然而,有的时候则严格地以传统约定日为基础来处理已使用过的并被记入每一个良好天气工作日的装卸时间,因而,所允许的装卸时间开始计算的开始点,可能会在装卸时间已经开始起算的那一天的某一时刻开始。以此为基础,某个特定的良好天气工作日也可能会在星期六的0800时开始,并且一直持续到下星期一的0800时止,介于中间的那个星期日则不予计算。
  


  2.76 Whichever method is used, the result will be the same. In the following example, the calendar day basis has been used and the following facts assumed: three weather working days have been allowed as laytime; the relevant hours of work are 07 00–19 00; laytime commenced at 16 00 on 1 June and there were two interruptions—one due to weather between 10 00–12 00 on 2 June and one due to a winch failure between 08 00– 10 00 on 3 June.
  


  2.76无论使用的是哪一种方法,其结果将是一同样的。在下述例子中,使用的是以日历日为基础的算法,同时假定的事实如下:允许使用3个良好天气工作日作为装卸时间;每天的工作时间是0700时至1900时;装卸时间于6月1日的1600时开始并且中间有二次中断作业¬——第一次由于天气的原因在6月2日1000时至1200时,又一次在6月3日0800时至1000时,是由于起货机的故障所致。
  


  2.77 In the statement above, the interruption due to rain was two hours, within working hours (the relevant hours) on a working day. The interruption therefore accounted for one-sixth of the total usual daily hours of work and applying this fraction to 24 hours produces an excepted period of four hours. Thus for that day, 20 hours count as used laytime.

  2.77在上述统计表中,在一个工作日的工作时间(即有关的时间)之内,由于下雨而中断作业2个小时。这一中断因此占全部正常的日工作时间的六分之一,将这一比值带入24小时之内便得出4个小时的除外时间。因此对于那一天来说,20个小时算作已使用的装卸时间。
  


  2.78 It will be noted that this method of calculation produces a gearing effect, increasing the actual time work was interrupted by weather by a factor which is the same as the ratio between 24 hours and the total usual daily hours of work (the relevant hours). Thus where, as here, the vessel could work 12 hours per day, the uplift will be 24:12, i.e. twice. It will also be noted that this applies only to weather interruptions, not other excepted periods.

  2.78人们将会注意到这种计算方法产生出一种连锁反应的效果,由于与24小时和全部正常的日工作时间(即有关的时间)之间,适用相同比率的因素而增加了因天气原因中断的作业的实际时间。因此,如果像这里所说的那样,该船舶假如每天能作业12个小时的话,这种增长就将是24比12,亦即两倍。人们还将会注意到,这仅只适用于因天气引起的作业中断,对于其他各种除外的时间则并不适用。

  2.79 In this example, the vessel went on demurrage at 22 00 on 4 June, whereas when the same facts were applied to the Rubystone formula, demurrage commenced at 08 00 on 5 June, some ten hours later. However, the Reardon Smith formula will not always produce such a result and in certain circumstances the effect may be to defer the point at which laytime is used up. All that may be said with certainty is that, where there are any interruptions due to weather, the two formulae will produce different results and that using the principles of the Reardon Smith case will be correct.

  2.79在这个例子中,该船舶于6月4日2200时开始进入滞期,而当这些相同的事实适用Rubystone的计算方法时,滞期则应该于6月5日的0800时开始,也就是大约在(6月4号2200时) 之后的10个小时。然而,Reardon Smith的计算方法则并非总会产生这样的结果,在某些情况下其效果可能是将装卸时间用尽的那一时刻推迟。至此,可以肯定的说,当是由于天气原因导致作业中断时,这二种计算方法会产生不同的结果,因而运用Reardon Smith案中的这些原则应是正确的。

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