《装卸时间与滞期费》第3章-装卸时间的起算-连载1
日期:2018-11-22 阅读:1664
  《装卸时间与滞期费》第6版

  CHAPTER 3 第3章

  Commencement of laytime 装卸时间的起算

  3.1 Normally three conditions must be satisfied before the charterer can be required to start loading or discharging, as the case may be, and therefore before the laytime allowed starts to run. These are that:

  1. The ship must have arrived at the destination specified in the charter.

  2. The ship must be ready and in a fit condition to receive or discharge her cargo.

  3. Where required, notice of her readiness must have been given to the charterer. In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, however, this last requirement applies only at the first load port. When these conditions have been met, the vessel is an Arrived ship and, subject to the expiry of any period prescribed in the charter, laytime begins to run

  3.1 要求承租人开始进行装/卸货作业之前,视情况而定,和在允许的装卸时间起算之前,通常必须要满足三个条件。它们是:

  1. 船舶必须已经抵达租船合同中所指定的目的地;

  2. 船舶必须准备就绪,并且处于适于装入或卸出货物的状态;

  3. 如果要求的话,必须已向承租人递交了准备就绪通知书。不过,在没有相反的明示规定的情况下,最后这一要求仅适用于第一装货港。当符合这些条件时,船舶就成为抵达船,而且只要合同中所规定的某段时间届满,装卸时间就将开始起算。

  The specified destination指定的目的地

  3.2 In The Johanna Oldendorff, Lord Diplock analysed the essential characteristics of a voyage charter and divided the adventure into four successive stages:

  (1) The loading voyage, viz. the voyage of the chartered vessel from wherever she is at the date of the charterparty to the place specified in it as the place of loading.

  (2) The loading operation, viz. the delivery of the cargo to the vessel at the place of loading and its stowage on board.

  (3) The carrying voyage, viz. the voyage of the vessel to the place specified in the charterparty as the place of delivery.

  (4) The discharging operation, viz. the delivery of the cargo from the vessel at the place specified in the charterparty as the place of discharge and its receipt there by the charterer or other consignee.

  3.2 在Johanna Oldendorff案,Diplock勋爵曾分析了航次租船合同的基本特征,并且将这一冒险航程分为四个连续的阶段,它们是:

  (1) 装货航程,即执行航次租船合同的船舶从合同签订当日的所在地前往指定装货地点的航程。

  (2) 装货作业,即在装货地将货物装到船上并在船上积载堆装的作业过程。

  (3) 载运航程,即船舶驶往合同中指定的交货地的航程。

  (4) 卸货作业,即在合同中指定的卸货地由船舶交付货物,并由承租人或其他收货人在那里收受货物的作业过程。

  3.3 Arrival at the specified destination is the point both geographically and in time when the voyage stages end and the loading/discharging operations begin. Fixed laytime charters are traditionally divided into berth, dock and port charters depending on where the voyage stages end and these will be considered in more detail later. However, whether a charter is a berth, dock or port charter is not necessarily determinative of the specified destination, because berth and port charters, in particular, may contain provisions advancing this. 4 Although the same divisions apply to customary laytime charters and there still therefore comes a point at which laytime begins, it is generally a less significant event in such charters because most of the risk of delay thereafter remains with the shipowner. However, the same principles apply.

  3.3抵达指定的目的地不单是在地理位置上,而且在时间上皆意味着航程阶段的结束和装/卸货作业的开始。依据航程阶段结束地点,固定装卸时间的租船合同在传统上分为泊位租船合同、码头租船合同和港口租船合同,这些将在后面做详细论述。然而,无论租船合同是否是泊位、码头或者港口租船合同,指定的目的地均不一定是决定性因素,因为,特别是泊位租船合同和港口租船合同可能会包含有提前起算时间的条文。尽管同样的划分也适用于按习惯装卸时间的租船合同,也同样会产生装卸时间怎样起算的问题,但总的说来对于这种租船合同意义并不太大,因为此后的延迟风险大都是由船东承担。然而,不管怎样,这些同样的原则还是适用的。

  3.4 Sometimes, instead of naming a specific berth, dock or port, a charter will specify that the vessel concerned is to proceed to one or more berths, docks or ports within a stated geographical area, e.g.:

  “one or two safe berths Mississippi River”

  “one dock London River”

  “one port German North Sea”.

  3.4 有时,租船合同中并不订明具体的泊位、码头或港口,而是指定船舶前往某一规定地区的一个或几个泊位、码头或港口,例如:

  ‘密西西比河的一两个安全泊位’

  ‘伦敦河的一个码头’

  ‘德国北海的一个港口’
  
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