CHAPTER 3 第3章
Commencement of laytime 装卸时间的起算
Reachable on arrival/always accessible
3.451 Strictly speaking, a reachable on arrival or always accessible clause, which in the High Court in The Kyzikos were said to be the same (at least as far as getting into berth is concerned), have no effect on when laytime commences and therefore in a charter containing such a clause laytime will commence on arrival at the speciﬁed destination after the elapse of any prescribed period. What they may do, however, is give rise to a claim for detention for any delay preventing the vessel from reaching its speciﬁed destination and may also affect the meaning to be given to any provision such as that contained in clause 6 of the Exxonvoy 69/Asbatankvoy form of charter, by which charterers are excused from responsibility for delay in the vessel getting into berth after notice of readiness has been given. The judicial history of the clause will now be considered, together with the ﬁrst of these considerations. The second will be considered in a later chapter.
3.451严格地讲，高等法院在The Kyzikos —案中认为二者是相同的（至少就靠泊而言），对装卸时间的起算并没什么影响。因此，在租船合同含有这种条款的情况下，装卸时间将从船舶抵达了指定目的地，并且任一限定期限届满后起算。然而，它们可以起的作用是，将会就因阻止船舶抵达指定目的地导致的任何延迟而索赔滞期损失，而且还可能会影响某种条款规定的含义，例如对Exxonvoy69/Asbatankvoy租船合同格式范本中第6条款的内容，按照该该条的规定，承租人是免于承担在准备就绪通知书递交后出现的船舶延迟靠泊方面的责任。先结合第一个作用，来回顾一下这个条款的司法历史，在下一章节中我们还会讨论到它的第二个作用。
3.452 The principal cases in which these phrases have been considered involve tankers. The phrase ‘‘reachable on arrival’’ is more often encountered in tanker charters and ‘‘always accessible’’ in dry cargo charters. The ﬁrst to consider ‘‘reachable on arrival’’ was Sociedad Carga Oceanica SA v. Idolinoele Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH (The Angelos Lusis), a decision of Megaw J, as he then was. This concerned the motor tanker Angelos Lusis which had been ﬁxed to load a cargo at Constantza. On arrival at the load port she was forced to anchor in the roads, where she was not an Arrived ship, since the port authorities would not allow her to proceed until a berth became available. The owners claimed there was an absolute obligation on the charterers to provide a place for loading reachable on the vessel’s arrival. The charterers, on the other hand, claimed that this was a port charter and therefore the risk of delay prior to arrival in the port at a point where the vessel became an Arrived ship lay with the owners. Furthermore, they said ‘‘arrival’’ in the phrase reachable on arrival meant arrival in the port and it was only on her arrival in the port that they became under a duty to provide a berth.
3.452在讨论这些短语的重要典型案例中都涉及到油轮。在油轮租船合同中更经常遇到的是‘抵达即马上靠泊’这一短语，而‘总是自由进入靠泊’多是在干散货租船合同。第一个讨论‘抵达即马上靠泊’的案例是由Megaw法官审理的Sociedad Carga Oceanica SA v. Idolinoele Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH(The Angelos Lusis)—案。在该案中，有关油轮Angelos Lusis号被指示前往罗马尼亚Constantza装货。抵达装港后，该轮被迫在外锚地拋锚，因为港口当局只有等到有空闲泊位时才会准许她驶入靠泊，而在这儿她还不能被视为是抵达船。船东主张：承租人负有绝对的义务在船舶抵达时为其提供一个可以靠泊进行装货的位置。相反，承租人则认为这是一份港口租船合同，所以，船舶在抵达港口范围内的一个能使其成为抵达船的地点之前的延迟风险应由船东承担。而且，他们还说，‘到达即靠’这个短语中的“到”指的是到达港口，只有她到达了港口，承租人才有义务提供泊位。